Los 12 consejos de Roberto Bolaño


Roberto BolañoRoberto Bolaño, el gran escritor chileno, premio Herralde 1998 y Rómulo Gallegos 1999, escribió 12 consejos sobre el arte de escribir cuentos.  ¿Puede enseñarnos algo de todo lo que supo en sólo 12 puntos? Quizá no todo, pero sí algunos de sus principios.

“Como ya tengo 44 años, voy a dar algunos consejos sobre el arte de escribir cuentos.

1. Nunca abordes los cuentos de uno en uno, honestamente, uno puede estar escribiendo el mismo cuento hasta el día de su muerte.

2. Lo mejor es escribir los cuentos de tres en tres, o de cinco en cinco. Si te ves con energía suficiente, escríbelos de nueve en nueve o de quince en quince.

3. Cuidado: la tentación de escribirlos de dos en dos es tan peligrosa como dedicarse a escribirlos de uno en uno, pero lleva en su interior el mismo juego sucio y pegajoso de los espejos amantes.

4. Hay que leer a Quiroga, hay que leer a Felisberto Hernández y hay que leer a Borges. Hay que leer a Rulfo, a Monterroso, a García Márquez. Un cuentista que tenga un poco de aprecio por su obra no leerá jamás a Cela ni a Umbral. Sí que leerá a Cortázar y a Bioy Casares, pero en modo alguno a Cela y a Umbral.

5. Lo repito una vez más por si no ha quedado claro: a Cela y a Umbral, ni en pintura.

6. Un cuentista debe ser valiente. Es triste reconocerlo, pero es así.

7. Los cuentistas suelen jactarse de haber leído a Petrus Borel. De hecho, es notorio que muchos cuentistas intentan imitar a Petrus Borel. Gran error: ¡Deberían imitar a Petrus Borel en el vestir! ¡Pero la verdad es que de Petrus Borel apenas saben nada! ¡Ni de Gautier, ni de Nerval!

8. Bueno: lleguemos a un acuerdo. Lean a Petrus Borel, vístanse como Petrus Borel, pero lean también a Jules Renard y a Marcel Schwob, sobre todo lean a Marcel Schwob y de éste pasen a Alfonso Reyes y de ahí a Borges.

9. La verdad es que con Edgar Allan Poe todos tendríamos de sobra.

10. Piensen en el punto número nueve. Uno debe pensar en el nueve. De ser posible: de rodillas.

11. Libros y autores altamente recomendables: De lo sublime, del Seudo Longino; los sonetos del desdichado y valiente Philip Sidney, cuya biografía escribió Lord Brooke; La antología de Spoon River, de Edgar Lee Masters; Suicidios ejemplares, de Enrique Vila-Matas.

12. Lean estos libros y lean también a Chéjov y a Raymond Carver, uno de los dos es el mejor cuentista que ha dado este siglo.”

Roberto Bolaño, 1997.

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