Consideraciones Teóricas. Monomito. La llamada a la aventura (II)


Al explicar hasta aquí me suelo encontrar tres dudas: las llamadas “contra” la aventura, las llamadas que no son “un problema” y las “múltiples”. Suele haber un cuarto problema: se entiende todo, pero no se imagina en la práctica. Bien, hoy nos ocupamos de las tres primeras y el próximo día ponemos un ejemplo desde el principio de una historia hasta el final de esta etapa.

Advertencias.
No siempre la llamada es positiva. No siempre invita al héroe “hacia” la aventura. También la llamada puede ser negativa, “contra” la aventura. Un ejemplo clásico es el adivino que utiliza Shakespeare para advertir a Julio César. “¡Guárdate de los idus de marzo!”. En Moby Dick, un viejo loco advierte a la tripulación de que no se embarquen en el Pequod. O el viejo profesor que charla con Holden Caulfield antes de que viaje a Nueva York. Más que una llamada es una advertencia: el héroe ha decidido emprender el viaje y el heraldo aparece para advertirle de que no lo haga. Según Campbell, la Llamada a la aventura simboliza el “despertar del yo” del héroe… normalmente. En este caso es al revés. Es decir, se supone que el subconsciente del héroe le advierte de que no está preparado para el cambio que implica el viaje.

moby-dick

¿Qué tal le va a ir al personaje si desatiende estas señales?
Mal, efectivamente. Se dice que es una característica fundamental del “héroe trágico”, aunque no me animaría a afirmarlo tan alegremente. Sea como fuere, siempre es el mismo juego llamada-rechazo-consecuencias.
· Llaman al héroe (su “yo” está despertando) pero le entra regomello y rechaza la aventura: habrá consecuencias.
· Advierten al héroe contra la aventura (su “yo” no está preparado) pero se empecina: consecuencias. Malísimas.

Llamadas múltiples.
Otras veces el héroe recibe más de una llamada, pero sigue siendo el mismo juego llamada-rechazo-consecuencias. Por ejemplo: la novia del héroe considera que es el momento de dar un paso más en su relación y casarse. Al mismo tiempo, le ofrecen una beca de investigación en el Polo Norte. ¿Cuál es la buena? El héroe tampoco lo sabe (está en la incompetencia, decíamos), aunque antes de que se decida habrá pistas y advertencias (lo veremos en el ejemplo del próximo día). Si desatiende las advertencias y elige la mala (se casa), tendrá consecuencias. Malísimas. Si atiende la llamada correcta… bien, la historia sigue normalmente.

Entonces ¿para qué es este juego llamada-rechazo-consecuencias?
Es mucho anticipar, veremos la interpretación de Campbell y las funciones específicas del rechazo en la siguiente etapa. De momento, en mi opinión, es que el problema lanza la historia y que su mera presencia ante al personaje refuerza algunas funciones que vimos la etapa Mundo Cotidiano: construye al personaje y establece lo que está en juego, porque al enfrentar al héroe con el problema añadimos algo importantísimo para la historia: la presión.

tren2

Problema concreto.
Cuando decía que la Llamada a la aventura era la “aparición del problema” no quería ser muy literal. Es más bien la aparición de una situación “problemática” para el héroe. Por ejemplo, la tentación. El mapa del tesoro, el poder. La mujer fatal. Si el héroe está tranquilamente rellenando un informe financiero en su cubículo y se presenta una nueva compañera despampanante, no se puede decir que sea un “problema”. Todavía.
En Extraños en un tren, de Hitchcock (y de Highsmith), la llamada es una coincidencia, un encuentro fortuito pero muy conveniente. O dejamos al héroe sin opciones, sencillamente: dejamos al héroe inconsciente de un cachetazo y le despertamos en un barco en alta mar.

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