Consideraciones Teóricas. El Monomito.


De vuelta en Madrid con una cansina gripe veraniega tras una temporada de vacaciones en Almería visitando a BB, el único amigo cuyo número de teléfono conservo de aquella mítica época en que íbamos a la playa del Sardinero en manada mientras nos nacía vello corporal en zonas insospechadas. Por lo demás, todo estupendo: playa, fiesta, tapeo, playa, gol de Iniesta. Vagancia absoluta. La vagancia es lo mío.

En una de las fiestas conocí a un muchacho oriundo y tuvimos una conversación que ya he tenido mil veces… Me preguntan de qué trabajo, contesto que enseño a la gente a escribir ficción y me responden que eso es imposible. Que no se puede.

Llegados a este punto del diálogo y en función del número de güisquis que lleves encima, puedes contemporizar o liarla. Si quieres contemporizar, tiras de la opción plana y contestas que sí se puede. Que no se puede enseñar a nadie a tener talento (aunque el talento puede descubrirse y trabajarse), pero sí se puede enseñar a construir ficción competente a cualquier persona. No sé por qué, me resulta una actitud muy española pensar que no se puede enseñar a escribir ficción y al mismo tiempo creer que en la facultad de Filosofía te enseñan a filosofar y en la de Bellas Artes a artistear, aun sabiendo que en Inglaterra o en Usamérica, por ejemplo, hay cursos oficiales de posgrado y programas universitarios de escritura creativa, novela, guión…

Lamentablemente, la fiesta era un cumpleaños y había barra libre, así que opté por una opción abierta y dije algo como: ¿Me estás diciendo que mi trabajo no sirve para nada y que engaño a la gente? Al final no me peleé con nadie, pero discutí mucho y no expliqué nada. Así que, en deuda con BB por soportar mi mal comportamiento y ahora que quiere ponerse a contar historias (con el agravante de que fue él quien me contagió la afición invitándome a un ciclo de Orson Welles en Tantín ¿te acuerdas?) he pensado ver en los próximos días una de las teorías narrativas más extendidas.

El héroe de las mil caras

El héroe de las mil caras

El Monomito (término que tomó prestado de James Joyce) o Viaje del Héroe, es una teoría narrativa que expuso Joseph Campbell en El héroe de las mil caras, libro de obligada lectura en todo programa oficial de narrativa que conozco.

Básicamente, el tipo se dedicó a estudiar cuentos de hadas, leyendas artúricas, ritos iniciáticos, relatos bíblicos, mitos y tragedias griegas, nórdicas, orientales… narraciones de distintas épocas y culturas de todo el mundo y encontró un patrón básico. Diecisiete etapas por las que pasa todo mito que se precie. Observó, además, que muchos de los elementos de estas etapas presentaban claros y significativos paralelismos con el simbolismo de los sueños. Pensó entonces en la posibilidad de que estos sistemas simbólicos comunes se debían a creaciones naturales de la mente humana, así que topó con los postulados del psicoanálisis de C.G. Jung (el inconsciente colectivo, los arquetipos…) para justificar las coincidencias en relatos mitológicos de toda época y lugar, y para explicar la función dramática y psicológica de cada una de las etapas en relación con los personajes.

Posteriormente, muchos autores (Phil Cousineau, Christopher Vogler, David Adams Leeming, Rachel Pollack…) revisaron la teoría de Campbell aplicándola a la narrativa “moderna”, digamos. Teorías distintas pero parecidas. Unieron varias etapas en una, eliminaron otras, las reordenaron, cambiaron los nombres… siempre intentando construir una teoría definitiva, como si se tratase de formular la tercera ley de la termodinámica. No me convencen porque dan la sensación de que más que ayudar, limitan. Encorsetan. Así que los próximos días voy a contar, por encima, mi versión del asunto, poniendo algunos ejemplos y respondiendo las preguntas que se os ocurran. Voy a ir deprisa, un par de post semanales. De momento os dejo con el esquema:

myth_quest_model

  1. #1 by especialista on 25/Jul/2010

    ¡Puf, qué susto!, pensaba como K que la despedida era porque acababa el blog.
    Bienvenido después de las vacaciones, y cuidado con la gripe veraniega, que en esta época las gripes son de lo mas engorroso de quitar.

  2. #2 by joe on 26/Jul/2010

    El señor de los anillos! :P

  3. #3 by BB on 3/Ago/2010

    Si tanta alusión pretendía comprobar que sigo lo que haces y leo lo que escribes, aclarado queda. Ah, la semana que viene tenemos ciclo de Truffaut antes de volverme a Almería. Hasta entonces, un abrazo (los abrazos son lo mío, qué le vamos a hacer).
    P.S. Me pongo a buscar el libro de Campbell

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