Consideraciones Prácticas. Diálogos y opciones II


Dándole vueltas al contraste, he caído en que todavía no os he contado las dos opciones de diálogos que quedaban por ver.

Después de unos años dando clases he comprobado que la mayoría de aspirantes a escritor piensa que no sabe, y quiere un recetario. Quieren una serie de normas o reglas que aplicar. Una lista de cosas que hacer y cosas que no hacer al escribir ficción.

Es cierto que se pueden enunciar unos cuantos principios, muy generales, pero es mala idea. Suele desembocar en una especie de acartonamiento creativo, falta de espontaneidad y de intuición (aunque sí, la creatividad, la espontaneidad y la intuición no tienen valor por sí mismos). Por eso no me gustó aquel post tan esquemático, que podía leerse como una serie de normas y por eso no me va a gustar tampoco éste. Lo importante de ambos post no son las “opciones”, sino que entendáis por qué los diálogos se vuelven insustanciales cuando nos pasamos intentando que parezcan “reales”, o por qué se vuelven petulantes, discursivos, didácticos y poco creíbles cuando nos pasamos por el otro lado y hemos intentando un diálogo muy significativo. Y que entendamos también por qué los diálogos se desinflan o se acartonan cuando no hay contraste, cuando no hay acción y reacción entre las frases de uno y otro personaje.

Las opciones sobre diálogos son sólo sugerencias. Se trata de que cuando leáis un diálogo sepáis por qué funciona o no funciona, no de memorizar las opciones e ir aplicándolas: ahora toca una opción negativa, ahora una abierta…

En fin, vamos allá. La penúltima opción, la “opción contraria”, consiste en no responder la pregunta del interlocutor. Pasas de él completamente. Cambiar de tema, escurrir el bulto. Irse por las ramas. O pasar al ataque (esto es: preguntar. El que pregunta, maneja la conversación). Por ejemplo:

-¿Has bañando al niño?
-¿De dónde vienes?

Con esta opción, el diálogo no se termina pero, más antes que después, va a llevar a los personajes a una pelea. O a una reconciliación. No se puede escurrir el bulto eternamente (créanme) y tampoco se puede pasar al ataque sin que las cosas se desmadren. Unas cuantas “opciones contrarias” en un diálogo tienden a crear una situación con una gran carga emocional.

La siguiente opción es la “opción de la escalera“. Sucede cuando alguien te dice algo ofensivo, o te recrimina algo, o te vacila. A menudo es una situación incómoda o violenta. Cuando alguien te acusa de algo y te quedas en blanco, con cara de tonto, mirando al suelo y rascándote la nuca: no sabes qué decir. O sales del baño, vuelves al salón, y un invitado de la fiesta dice en voz alta que llevas la bragueta abierta. Y otra vez la cara de tonto y a mirar al suelo.

No sabes que decir hasta que se te ocurre la respuesta perfecta cuando ya es demasiado tarde, por supuesto. La respuesta es esa frase, normalmente corta y concisa, que dejaría al gracioso en su sitio. Los franceses llaman a ese momento de revelación “Esprit de l’escalier”. Por eso se llama la “opción de la escalera”: la respuesta perfecta, pero no cuando ya has salido de la fiesta y estás bajando las escaleras para volver a casa. Es la respuesta perfecta en el momento perfecto. Y se terminó la conversación. Ya sólo queda pelearse, o batirse en retirada, o admitir que te rindes e ir los domingos a por el pan en chandal de vinilo.

En American Beatuy, Lester Burnham (Kevin Spacy) se encuentra con el amante de su mujer, Buddy Kane (Peter Gallager). La mujer, Carolyn Burnham (Annette Bening), les presenta. En realidad ellos ya se conocen, pero Buddy pone cara de no recordarle, así que Lester dice:
-No te preocupes. Yo también me olvidaría.

La “opción de la escalera” termina con el diálogo. Buddy balbucea algo y Carolyn justifica a su marido (“qué excéntrico eres, Lester”, o algo así) y Lester sale de escena. Pero el espectador ya está perdido. Ahora es un incondicional de Lester, porque todos, alguna vez, no hemos sabido qué decir y Lester se ha vengado en nuestro nombre.

En Pulp Fiction, Vincent (John Travolta) y Jules (Samuel L. Jackson) sostienen una discusión muy tarantiniana (o socrática) sobre las implicaciones y consecuencias de darle un masaje en los pies a la mujer de un mafioso de primer orden. Vincent sostiene que un masaje en los pies tiene connotaciones sexuales y Jules opina que un masaje en los pies no quiere decir absolutamente nada. Así que Vincent le pregunta:
-¿Has dado muchos masajes en los pies?
-A mí no me hables de masajes en los pies. Soy el jodido maestro de los pies. (Opción plana)
-¿Has hecho muchos?
-Joder, sí. Perfeccioné tanto mi técnica que apenas hago cosquillas. (Opción plana)
Y entonces Vincent da un paso hacia delante, se acerca a la cara de Jules y lo suelta:
-¿Te importaría darle un masaje en los pies a un hombre?

Y el diálogo se vuelve a terminar. Jules le pide amablemente a Vincent que se vaya a la mierda, y sale de plano: ya estamos con Vincent. También con Jules, porque también a todos nos han dado un repaso alguna vez.

  1. #1 by Zgznica on 31/May/2010

    Lo más difícil que me resulta de la narrativa, son los diálogos. El hacer un diálogo que mantenga el interés del lector, me parece tan compicado, que por eso, en un tiempo, (por así decirlo), me especialicé en el monólogo.

    No es baladí la decisión. Me gusta la narrativa, pero soy poco disciplinada y por eso me decidí por la poesía, y soy tan rematadamente vaga, que prefiero el soliloquio.

    Un buen diálogo en un relato para mí es como sacar un 10 en químicas, y de entrada lo deshecho, y no digo nada en una novela.

    Otro tema es el seguir unas directrices para escribir o intentar hacerlo mejor o peor. Yo creo que, aunque aburrido, es útil, ya que para aprender algo, lo poco que podemos, muchos de nosotros llegar a aprender, es imprescindible, al principio el sometimiento a normas.

    Es como la poesía. Decía Nicolás Guillén, en sus talleres literarios, que: “para hacer un buen poema libre, hace falta aprender a componer un buen soneto; y esa técnica encorsetada, es lo que le falta a la mayoría de poetas jóvenes”.

    Precisamente esa máxima se me quedó grabada, en mis tiempos de alumna de los talleres que asistí.

    Es verdad que es aburrida, paro como dice el refrán: “Para aprender: perder”.

    Y ya querido Tomás lo dejamos por hoy.

    muacks.

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