Notas. Ironía y Contraste.


La ironía es una figura retórica en la que el sentido literal de la frase es opuesto al sentido real de la frase, dice la RAE. Es decir, cuando le preguntas a tu antagonista si está enfada y ella te contesta que no, aunque todos sabemos que quiere decir que sí, porque es bien sabido, queridas, que cuando una mujer dice que sí, es que no, y cuando dice que no, es que tampoco.

Y más tranquilo ahora que ya os he incordiado un poco, quería señalar que la ironía no es sólo una figura retórica. Es un vuelco de sentido. Puede ser irónica una situación, o una experiencia. O una historia. Sócrates, por ejemplo, interrogaba al personal hasta que el personal terminaba sosteniendo una teoría distinta de la que sostenían al principio del interrogatorio y que, encima, ya existía en ellos mismos. Además, muy parecida a la teoría del propio Sócrates.

escritor

O Dorothy, que se pasa tres cuartos de película queriendo regresar a Kansas para descubrir que pudo volver desde el principio (aunque en el proceso aprendió una importante lección sobre la vida, étc.).
Parece fácil, pero todos conocemos a gente que presenta dificultades alarmantes con lo no literal. Alannis Morrisette, por ejemplo, canta que “es irónico encontrarse con un atasco cuando ya llegabas tarde”, porque no distingue la ironía de la mala suerte.

El caso es que ayer fui a ver El escritor y Ewan McGregor, el protagonista, luce la clásica ironía inglesa. Me pareció un buen ejemplo de contraste, contradicción y profundidad. La ironía funciona tan bien en narrativa porque es el contraste mismo. Es decir una cosa y contar otra en una sola frase, o en un solo gesto o palabra.

En cuanto a El Escritor, a todos nos pareció que, por no fastidiarle la película a nadie, que la intención de Polanski tiene que ver con su relación personal con la justicia usamericana, que la ironía del protagonista resultaba estupenda, que un par de momentos divertidos y una trama con más agujeros que una flauta.

Esto de “par de momentos divertidos” me recordó una anécdota que cuenta Robert McKee en sus cursos. Cuando llegó a Los Ángeles consiguió un trabajo de lector de guiones para varias cadenas de televisión. Al parecer, se le acumulaban los borradores y la mayoría de informes eran negativos, así que pensó en escribir una especie de informe general de forma que personalizándolo con un par de detalles y rellenando el espacio en blanco de “título” y “autor”, bastaría. El informe es algo así (la traducción es mía):

Algunos momentos divertidos, algunos momentos emocionantes. Agradable descripción y diálogo interpretable. En general, un guión con palabras bien elegidas. No obstante la historia apesta. Las primeras treinta páginas se arrastran sobre una montaña de explicaciones (o de anticipaciones) y el resto nunca se tiene en pie. Lo que parece haber de argumento principal está lleno de convenientes coincidencias y motivaciones débiles. Las tensiones no se relacionan entre sí y no dan forma a las tramas secundarias. Los personajes no revelan ninguna profundidad mayor que lo que parecen a primera vista. En ningún momento se muestra una visión íntima del interior del personaje ni de su contexto social. Se trata de una colección inerte de episodios predecibles y esteriotipados que divagan hasta crear una bruma sin objetivo (o con un objetivo evidente).

  1. #1 by Teadora on 16/May/2010

    It´s like ten thousand spoons when all you need is a knife …
    Que fuerte, un montón de años cantando esa canción y tienes toda la razón.
    No es irónico !!!!!!

  2. #2 by Pinaqui on 30/May/2010

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  3. #3 by Zgznica on 31/May/2010

    Partiendo de la base de que yo cuando digo NO es no y cuando digo sí es “tal vez o quizá”, vamos al lío.

    Lo primero saludarte amigo mío y lo segundo saludar a Teadora, aunque nos saludemos todos por otros lares.

    Y por último, extender mi saludo a todo el que asoma.

    Veamos; ironía ¿no era ese pecado capital que Carlos H decía no tener que utilizarse más que en casos extraordinarios? .

    Es latente, que quienes más reniegan de la ironía, son quienes no tienen sentido del humor. Por lo tanto, la ironía es paradigma del sentido del humor.

    Y con esta divagación me quedo más ancha que larga, porque si hay algo retórico y archisabido es lo que he puesto, claro que si nos atenemos a que estoy en el curro, que nos han puesto un programa que no funciona o fucional mal, que nos echa una y otra vez y que hay que pasar el tiempo hasta las 3 de la tarde (léase 15 horas); este artículo me ha venido de perlas, para soltar una serie de chorradas sin tres ni revés y sobre todo, sin tener que usar el intelecto.

    Y es que estos artículos tuyos, Tomás, son para pensar y pensar mucho, así que he elegido este, más libiano, para asomarme y decirte que sigo por aquí y te leo.

    Y como la jefa del despacho contiguo no para de mirar hacia mi pantalla, será mejor que desconecte.

    Besicos y sigo en otra ocasión.

  4. #4 by especialista on 2/Jun/2010

    Saludos Zgnica, tiempo sin saber de tí.

  5. #5 by Ibáñez on 13/Jun/2010

    Venga, Polanski y la ironía: si fuera el profe, os propondría un análisis crítico, en su versión narrativa cinematográfica, de otra cinta suya, “Lunas de hiel” (”Bitter moon”), donde, si he entendido algo del artículo sobre la ironía, ciertas escenas no tienen desperdicio.

  6. #6 by Amiguete on 12/Sep/2013

    Teadora :
    It´s like ten thousand spoons when all you need is a knife …
    Que fuerte, un montón de años cantando esa canción y tienes toda la razón.
    No es irónico !!!!!!

    Bueno, si estás en una fábrica de cuchillos sí sería irónica la frase de Alanis, pero si estás en una de cucharas, pues… sería lo normal. Creo que en esa en concreto le falta algo de contexto a la srta. Morrisette, pero en general no tiene ni pajotera de lo que es la ironía, no.

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