Notas. Recapitulemos II.


Para que no tengáis que andar mirando el post anterior, os pego el mismo texto de Una pena en observación y añado el siguiente párrafo:

Nadie me había dicho nunca que la pena se viviese como miedo. Yo no es que esté asustado, pero la sensación es la misma que cuando lo estoy. El mismo mariposeo en el estómago, la misma inquietud, los bostezos. Aguanto y trago saliva.
Otras veces es como si estuviera medio borracho o conmocionado. Hay una especie de manta invisible entre el mundo y yo. Me cuesta mucho trabajo enterarme de lo que me dicen los demás. Tiene tan poco interés. Y sin embargo quiero tener gente a mi alrededor. Me espantan los ratos en que la casa se queda vacía. Lo único que querría es que hablaran ellos unos con otros, que no se dirigieran a mí.
Hay momentos en que, de la forma más inesperada, algo en mi interior pugna por convencerme de que no me afecta mucho, de que no es para tanto, al fin y al cabo. El amor no lo es todo en la vida de un hombre. Yo, antes de conocer a H., era feliz. Era muy rico en eso que la gente llama ‘recursos’. A todo el mundo le pasan estas cosas. Vamos, que no lo estoy llevando tan mal. Le avergüenza a uno prestar oídos a esa voz, pero por unos momentos da la impresión de que está abogando por una causa justa. Luego sobreviene una repentina cuchillada de memoria al rojo vivo y todo ese ’sentido común’ se desvanece como una hormiga en la boca de un horno.
Y de rechazo cae uno en las lágrimas y en el pathos. Lágrimas sensibleras. Casi prefiero los ratos de agonía, que son por lo menos limpios y decentes. Pero el asqueroso, dulzarrón y pringoso placer de ceder a revolcarse en un baño de autocompasión, eso es algo que me nausea. Y, es más, cuando caigo en ello, me doy cuenta de que me lleva a tergiversar la imagen misma de H. En cuanto le doy alas a este humor, al poco rato la mujer de carne y hueso viene sustituida por una simple muñeca sobre la que lloriqueo. Gracias a Dios, el recuerdo de ella es todavía lo suficientemente fuerte (¿lo seguirá siendo siempre tanto?) como para salir adelante.
Porque H. no era así en absoluto. Su pensamiento era ágil, rápido y musculoso, como un leopardo. Ni la pasión ni la ternura ni el dolor eran capaces de hacerle bajar la guardia. Olfateaba la falsedad y la gazmoñería a la primera vaharada, e inmediatamente se abalanzaba sobre ti y te derribaba antes de que hubieras podido darte cuenta de lo que estaba pasando. ¡Cuántos globos me pinchó! Enseguida aprendí a no darle gato por liebre con mis palabras, excepto cuando lo hacía por el simple gusto -y ésta es otra cuchillada al rojo vivo- de exponerme a que se burlara de mí. Nunca he sido menos estúpido que como amante suyo.

La zona más expresiva del texto se concentra en dos frases, que curiosamente van seguidas y, curiosamente, guardan ambas relación con el calor: “Luego sobreviene una repentina cuchillada de memoria al rojo vivo y todo ese ’sentido común’ se desvanece como una hormiga en la boca de un horno.”

memo

Dos frases, juntas (no dispersas), trabajadas expresivamente, y apuntando al mismo lugar: la memoria y el calor ¿No parece que se deriva una especie de significado? O mejor: significado que se siente. Un sentimiento particular (del lector) que se deriva de la construcción lingüística de un texto.
De otra manera: es un “efecto expresivo” (un mini-efecto expresivo, en este caso). Si describes expresivamente el calor, o el frío, o un ruido, o un olor, un sabor… apuntando a un mismo concepto (la memoria, la soledad) o acción (un asesinato, un beso) se construye una especie de significado que se siente: la memoria puede ser abrasadora, matar es solo un ruido, la soledad es un sabor lento.

Más. Colocar una imagen, un símil, un efecto expresivo… le pide al lector más atención. Parece que la frase estuviese en negrita, resaltada. Es similar a un ‘primerísimo plano’ en cine. Le estás diciendo al lector: atento aquí. Así, es conveniente no ponerse estupendo y calzar una metáfora en cuanto ves el hueco, sino cuando aporta al sentido del texto de alguna manera (ayuda a la construcción del personaje o del narrador, a fijar la atención sobre un objeto con significado simbólico, o en un detalle importante para resolver la trama, etc). Además, el lector se terminará cansando de tanta floritura. A veces da la sensación de que el autor (no el narrador, el autor) se cuela en el texto. Pero el escritor está al servicio de la novela, no la novela al servicio del escritor. El que tiene que ser inteligente, profundo, sorprendente, irónico, sensible, ocurrente… es la novela, no el escritor.

Y, mucho mejor ahora que me he vuelto a meter con alguien inopinadamente, decía que una zona expresiva fija la atención del lector, destaca una zona con una fuerte carga emocional, le da relevancia. Es un buen momento para establecer un Coro porque el lector recordará este momento.

Cuando leemos por segunda vez: “-y ésta es otra cuchillada al rojo vivo-”, el coro resuena. Recordamos la primera cuchillada… la hormiga, el horno. El calor.
Esta primera carga emocional se suma a la segunda, como una bola de nieve.
Y así sucesivamente, diría Vonnegut.

Es un Coro Recordatorio. Asocia al presente de la historia, de manera inmediata y mediante una frase (”-y ésta es otra cuchillada al rojo vivo-”) un momento con una fuerte carga emocional (o racional) del pasado.

Ya no recapitulamos más. Prometido.

¿Qué tal las vacaciones?

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