Conjeturas. El silencio y los cómics.


En la segunda parte de Kill Bill (Quentin Tarantino, 2004), Bill (David Carradine) utiliza los cómics de Superman y a su alter ego Clark Kent como analogía para argumentar que, por mucho que se haga pasar por dependienta de una tienda de vinilos de segunda mano en Austin, Texas (siempre he querido ir a Austin, Texas, no sé por qué), la verdadera naturaleza de Breatrix Kiddo (Uma Thurman) es la de asesina a sueldo y, de paso, contar que el ser humano es débil, inseguro y cobarde.
Les dejo el vídeo aquí.

killbill

Tito, antiguo pero gran amigo, es como Bill. Encuentra este tipo de interpretaciones cuando lee un cómic. Antes de ayer, por ejemplo, me dice que tal secuencia de tal número de Daredevil significa que el olvido es, en realidad, empeñarse en recordar. Y te entusiasmas y le pides un boli al camarero para apuntar el nombre en una servilleta, pero el cómic siempre parece mejor cuando él te lo cuenta que cuando lo lees tú.
Lo que quiero decir es que no sé leer cómics.
O que no sé cómo se leen.

Y no se trata de éste o el otro, porque he leído un poco de todo… colecciones de superhéroes, novelas gráficas, Manga… y casi siempre de autores con cierta reputación (Alan Moore, Grant Morrison, Kazuo Koike, Jason, Art Spiegelman, Daniel Clowes…), pero no consigo leerlos como Tito y él no consigue explicarme cómo lo hace. Él es mucho más inteligente que yo, también es verdad. Quiero decir, que puede que me lo explique bien pero yo no lo entienda.

Tampoco me parece que mi incapacidad tenga mucho que ver la composición gráfica. Al final, aunque la narración oriental presenta variaciones, un cómic utiliza códigos y convenciones que ya conocemos: la composición de la escena, la disposición de los personajes, el plano (los planos cercanos son emotivos y los lejanos descriptivos, esas cosas), el ángulo, el tipo de viñeta, el entintado, el dibujo mismo…

Parece evidente que el medio, el formato, no es el adecuado para trabajar el sentido de la narración de la misma manera que se trabaja en una novela, o en una película. Por muchos motivos: la extensión; la obligada escasez de texto; las 4 páginas seguidas de pelea; las constantes y necesarias elipsis que hay entre viñeta y viñeta… Si leo un cómic igual que una novela, el sentido es tan obvio (normalmente un espacio que propicia una lucha entre el bien y el mal: el crimen no compensa; el poder corrompe; hacer el bien como obligación moral; si lo deseas lo conseguirás…) que la historia parece una trivialidad, una peripecia.

Sin embargo, mientras leo por tercera vez el Daredevil de Frank Miller que Tito me ha prestado sin encontrar la escena sobre el olvido, se me ocurre que se trata de los silencios.

daredevil

En una novela (o en una película) el narrador elige constantemente. Elige lo que te cuenta y cómo te lo cuenta. Esto implica que también elige lo que se calla: elige lo que no te cuenta y por qué no te lo cuenta. Y elige porque tiene una intención concreta (por eso decíamos en un post anterior que, en principio, ningún narrador es del todo fiable), porque quiere contar algo con lo que dice y, por extensión, con lo que no dice.
En algunas novelas los silencios no son significativos y su presencia (o ausencia, según se mire) obedece a decisiones relativas a la eficacia de la trama, sin más. Pero, muchas veces, lo que el narrador se calla tiene tanta intención y se carga tanto de significado, que el sentido del texto se interpreta, está en el silencio mismo.
(Por poner algún ejemplo de los libros mencionados hasta ahora… ¿Quiénes son los padres de Holden Caulfield en El guardián entre el centeno? ¿Cómo son? ¿A qué se dedican, qué edad tienen? ¿Se quieren? ¿Y a sus hijos? ¿Por qué un narrador de 16 años al que expulsan del colegio y se va de aventura a Nueva York menciona a sus padres, un par de veces, de pasada, en 250 páginas?)

Sin embargo, el cómic llena la narración de silencios, aunque creo que son más propios del formato que intención del narrador. Desde las elipsis entre viñetas, hasta la extensión, pasando por la relación entre género y configuración de personajes (los personajes complejos ralentizan y distraen de la acción, por eso las narraciones de acción tienden ser protagonizadas por personajes sencillos –no confundir “sencillos” con “simples”). Además, los cómics suelen colocar la narración en espacios y tiempos (decíamos que una definición válida de narración es representación de espacios y tiempos experimentados por personajes y acciones) en los que el bien no puede con el mal: futuros post-apocalípticos; islas secretas, Gotham; estados de excepción; mundos fantásticos; realidades marginales… En definitiva, tiempos y espacios ruidosos, pero llenos de silencios.

En fin, no quiero liarme. Esto es sólo una conjetura. La cosa es que no sé leer cómics y creo que no sé porque están tan llenos de silencios que piden una aproximación distinta a su lectura, que se me escapa. Me pasó algo parecido con el jazz, aunque conseguí entenderlo (en la medida de mis posibilidades): otro amigo me explicó que sólo tenía que escuchar de otra manera, que tenía que dejar de “predecir”, de esperar.
La cuestión es que escucho a Tito y me recuerda a alguien comiendo melón: no me gusta, pero le veo con la raja en la mano, mascando a dos carrillos y me da envidia.
Así que a ver si nos echamos una mano, como me la echaron con el jazz…. recomendaciones, lecturas. Conjeturas.

P.D: Se agradece el interés. Ya casi no cojeo. Hoy termino con los antibióticos.

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